Water Treatment: Protect your Investment

Process Water Treatment

Two of the main processes of industrial water treatment in petroleum industry are waste water treatment and water injection treatment. A large amount of proper water treatment can lead to the reaction of solids and bacteria within process. Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with minimum impact on the environment, or directly reused. The latter is called water reclamation because treated wastewater can then be used for other purposes. The treatment process takes place in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), often referred to as a Water Resource Recovery Facility (WRRF) or a sewage treatment plant. Pollutants in municipal wastewater (households and small industries) are removed or broken down. Disposal of wastewaters from an industrial plant is a difficult and costly problem. Most petroleum refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants have onsite facilities to treat their wastewaters so that the pollutant concentrations in the treated wastewater comply with the local and/or national regulations regarding disposal of wastewaters into community treatment plants or into rivers, lakes or oceans. Constructed wetlands are being used in an increasing number of cases as they provided high quality and productive on-site treatment. Other industrial processes that produce a lot of waste- waters such as paper and pulp production has created environmental concern, leading to development of processes to recycle water use within plants before they have to be cleaned and disposed. Chemicals are used during wastewater treatment in an array of processes to expedite disinfection. These chemical processes, which induce chemical reactions, are called chemical unit processes, and are used alongside biological and physical cleaning processes to achieve various water standards. There are several distinct chemical unit processes, including chemical coagulation, chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation and advanced oxidation, ion exchange, and chemical neutralization and stabilization, which can be applied to wastewater during cleaning. In petroleum industry, chemicals aid in producing suitable water for discharge or injection. A wide range of chemicals is available for water treating in petroleum industry. Offshore water injection consists of injecting seawater into oil reservoirs to maintain or increase oil production. A number of reservoirs, require that the water be treated before injection.

Oxygen scavenger

Chemical scavengers are used to remove dissolved oxygen from water-flow streams. There are a number of compounds commercially available to remove dissolved oxygen. These include:

sodium sulfite (Na 2 SO 3 )

sulfur dioxide (SO 2 )

sodium bisulphate (NaHSO 3 )

sodium metabisulfite (Na 2 S 2 O 5 )

ammonium bisulfite (NH 4 HSO 3 )

Download safety data sheet (MSDS)​

3020 Oxygen Scavenger
3021 Oxygen Scavenger

Download technical data sheet (TDS)​

3020 Oxygen Scavenger
3021 Oxygen Scavenger

Flocculant / Coagulant

Vira’s water-clarification chemicals aid in coagulating and flocculating the oil and solid particles into larger ones to enhance their separation from water. Flocculation and coagulation treatment chemicals are used in water injection treatment processes for solids removal, water clarification, lime softening, sludge thickening, and solids dewatering. Coagulants neutralize the negative electrical charge on particles, which destabilizes the forces keeping colloids apart. Water treatment coagulants are comprised of positively charged molecules that, when added to the water and mixed, accomplish this charge neutralization. Inorganic coagulants, organic coagulants, or a combination of both are typically used to treat water for suspended solids removal. When an inorganic coagulant is added to water containing a colloidal suspension, the cationic metal ion from the coagulant neutralizes the negatively charged electric double layer of the colloid. Flocculants gather the destabilized particles together and cause them to agglomerate and drop out of solution.

Antifoaming agent (Antifoam)

Some water systems (e.g., seawater) have a tendency to create foam when subjected to high pressure- drop or turbulence conditions. This foaming is very unpredictable and can cause enormous problems, particularly in deaerator columns. In the deaerator, foaming may result in failure of the level control on the base of the column and reduced oxygen-removal efficiency. Antifoam chemicals are polyglycols or silicones contained in a solvent that is fully water-soluble or water-dispersible. At dose levels usually less than 1 ppm, they act by decreasing the surface tension of bubbles so that they expand and coalesce. They are dosed to the inlet of the deaerator before the inlet distributor. In water-injection systems, the polyglycols are preferred because silicones produce fine precipitates, which can cause injectivity loss. However, silicones may be required in difficult applications, usually in low-temperature vacuum systems or when the foaming tendency is very high.

Corrosion inhibitor

Because piping and processing equipment of water injection plants are normally made of metals that are in contact with produced water or seawater, chemical or electrochemical reactions will occur. Vira’s water injection corrosion inhibitors reduce the corrosion rate by interrupting the electrochemical corrosion cell setup between the metal and the liquid or by stopping the deterioration of metal by a chemical reaction. One method of interrupting the electrochemical cell is to form a film on the metal surface, which stops the transfer of ions. One method of chemical protection uses an absorption inhibitor, such as a surface-active amine, which forms a chemisorption bond to the metal, rendering it incapable of dissolving into the fluid. Vira’s corrosion inhibitors are selected by laboratory or field tests. Laboratory testing and evaluation have the advantage of being quicker and less expensive; however, inhibitor selection should always be verified by a field test.

The following factors all have a significant effect on the corrosion rate of water injection plants:

the type of metal

Water pH

dissolved oxygen, dissolved salts, and acid gases in water

temperature, pressure, and fluid velocity

The most commonly used laboratory and field methods are:

the linear polarization resistance (LPR) test

electrical probes and corrosion coupons

Download safety data sheet (MSDS)​


Download technical data sheet (TDS)


Analysis Standards

ASTM-G170 Evaluating Corrosion Inhibitor
Sulphide Scavengers in Oil and Gas
Nace 2509 Corrosion Inhibitors for Prevention of Top of the Line Corrosion
Nace-1D196 Laboratory Test Methods for Evaluating corrosion inhibitor
Nace 1D182 Wheel Test Method


The types of biocide available are varied and are selected on the basis of:

kill rate to anaerobic bacteria

kill rate to aerobic bacteria

ability to penetrate surface films

Quaternary ammonium compounds

Chlorinated phenols

Organometallic compounds

Sulfur organic compounds



Download safety data sheet (MSDS)​

7520 Biocide
7530 Biocide

Download technical data sheet (TDS)

7520 Biocide
7530 Biocide

Nace TM0194 Biocide

NACE 31205

بازدارنده رسوب

تغییرات فشار و دما بر حلالیت اجزای شیمیایی در آب تاثیر می گذارد و ممکن است سبب تشکیل شوند. بسته به ترکیبات موجود در آب، انواع مختلف رسوب می تواند در خطوط لوله، تجهیزات، سیستم کنترل، پمپ و … تشکیل شود. تشکیل رسوبات منجر به آسیب دیدن تاسیسات، انسداد و آلودگی آن ها می شود. گستره وسیعی از مواد شیمیایی بازدارنده رسوب توسط شرکت ویرا بسپار برتر تولید شده و فرمولاسیون های نوینی توسعه یافته است تا از تشکیل رسوبات در آب پیشگیری کند. انتخاب بازدارنده رسوب مناسب به نوع رسوبات و شرایط تشکیل مانند دما و فشار سیستم بستگی دارد.

شایع ترین رسوب های موجود در سیستم تولید یا آب دریا

کربنات (Carbonate)

سولفات (Sulfate)

فسفات (Phosphate)

کمپلکس سیلیکا- فلز (Metallic-silicate complexes)

سولفید (Sulfide)

سیلیکا (Silica)

اکسید (Oxide)

آمونیوم (Ammonium)

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